Have you ever been asked to find a random set of citation from EndNote? This happens most often to me when researchers are testing out screening procedures, and want to ensure they are all interpreting the screening guidelines the same way. The researchers will all screen the same random set of 10-20 articles and compare results before screening the entire set.
So: what’s the best way to go about this? Sorting from a-z on any given field and selecting the top 10-20 articles isn’t likely to be truly random. For example, sorting by date will retrieve only very new or old articles. Sorting by record number is one possible way to do it, but also isn’t truly random as it will retrieve articles added to the database most or least recently.
Here’s how I take a truly random sample of citations from EndNote.
First, create an output filter in EndNote
The output filter will include only the citation record numbers. Don’t worry, you only have to do this once, and in the future it will all be set up for you!
- In EndNote, go to Edit –> Output Styles –> New Style
- In the resulting screen, click “templates” under the heading “bibliography”
- Then, put your curser in the box below “generic”. Then, click “insert field” –> “Record Number” –> then press enter so that you curser goes to the next line in the text box.
- Go to “file” –> “save as” and save it to something descriptive like “record-number-only”.
Next, export your record numbers.
- Back in the main EndNote screen, click the dropdown box at the top of the screen, then “select another style”, and search for your previously created Output Style.
- Then click “choose”. Ensure that your output style name is displaying in the dropdown box!
- Select “all references” to make sure all your references (that you want to create a subset from) are displayed. Then click one of the references and press ctrl + a (or cmd + a on a mac) to select all references.
- Right-hand click and select “copy formatted”.
Create your random subset!
- Open excel, and press ctrl + v (or cmd + v on a mac) to paste all your record numbers.
- in the cell to the right of your first record number, insert the formula =rand(). This will create a random number from 0 to 100.
- Hover the cursor over the bottom-right corner of the cell until it makes a cross. Then click and drag all the way down to the last row that contains a record number
Insert a row at the top and click “sort & filter” –> “filter” on the menu bar.
- Then, sort the second row (with the random numbers) from smallest to largest (or largest to smallest).
- You now have a randomly sorted list! Select and copy the top x number of cells in the first column (however large you want your sample to be).
Format your record numbers to put back into EndNote.
- Paste your subset of record numbers into word (paste as text, not a table!)
- Click “replace” on the main toolbar to bring up the find and replace box.
- Beside the box “find what”, write ^p (the up-carrot symbol followed by “p”).
Beside the box “replace with”, insert a semi-colon followed by one space.
- Then click “replace all”.
- You should have a string of record numbers separated by semi-colons.
Put them back into EndNote!
- Go back to your EndNote Library.
- Right-hand click in the sidebar and select “create smart group”
- Give it a nice title, like “random set” 😃
- In the first dropdown box, select “record number”, then “word begins with”, then paste in your formatted record numbers separated by semi-colons.
- Click “create”.
- All done!
I hope you found this useful. It might sound complicated, but this process really only takes a few seconds once you have gone through it a few times.
Til next time,
— POSTSCRIPT —
I was asked recently on Twitter how to isolate the remainder of citations for screening after using this method. It’s very easy!
To isolate the rest of your citations, simply make a combination group by doing the following:
- First, create a new group in EndNote calls “All Refs”, and drag ALL your citations from the library into it by going to “All References”, selecting all by clicking ctrl/cmd + A, and dragging them into your new group.
- Right-hand click on “My Groups” in EndNote, then click “Create From Groups”. Name this group “remainder to screen”, or something else that makes sense to you.
- In the first drop-down menu, select your “All Refs” group.
- Then select “NOT” from the boolean operators dropdown menu.
- Then select the group that holds your random subset in the second dropdown menu.